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Geoinformatics: Cyberinfrastructure for the Solid Earth Sciences

Advanced information technology infrastructure is increasingly being employed in the Earth sciences to provide researchers with efficient access to massive central databases and to integrate diversely formatted information from a variety of sources. These geoinformatics initiatives enable manipulation, modeling and visualization of data in a consistent way, and are helping to develop integrated Earth models at various scales, and from the near surface to the deep interior. This book uses a series of case studies to demonstrate computer and database use across the geosciences. Chapters are thematically grouped into sections that cover data collection and management; modeling and community computational codes; visualization and data representation; knowledge management and data integration; and web services and scientific workflows. Geoinformatics is a fascinating and accessible introduction to this emerging field for readers across the solid Earth sciences and an invaluable reference for researchers interested in initiating new cyberinfrastructure projects of their own.

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Models of Innovation: The History of an Idea

Models abound in science, technology, and society (STS) studies and in science, technology, and innovation (STI) studies. They are continually being invented, with one author developing many versions of the same model over time. At the same time, models are regularly criticized. Such is the case with the most influential model in STS-STI: the linear model of innovation. In this book, Benoit Godin examines the emergence and diffusion of the three most important conceptual models of innovation from the early twentieth century to the late 1980s: stage models, linear models, and holistic models. Godin first traces the history of the models of innovation constructed during this period, considering why these particular models came into being and what use was made of them. He then rethinks and debunks the historical narratives of models developed by theorists of innovation. Godin documents a greater diversity of thinkers and schools than in the conventional account, tracing a genealogy of models beginning with anthropologists, industrialists, and practitioners in the first half of the twentieth century to their later formalization in STS-STI. Godin suggests that a model is a conceptualization, which could be narrative, or a set of conceptualizations, or a paradigmatic perspective, often in pictorial form and reduced discursively to a simplified representation of reality. Why are so many things called models? Godin claims that model has a rhetorical function. First, a model is a symbol of “scientificity.” Second, a model travels easily among scholars and policy makers. Calling a conceptualization or narrative or perspective a model facilitates its propagation.

About the Author

Benoit Godin is a Professor at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Montreal.

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Environmental Science: Toward A Sustainable Future 13th Edition

For introductory courses in Environmental Science, Environmental Studies, and Environmental Biology. Equipping Learners to Understand the Roles of Science, Sustainability, and Stewardship The Thirteenth Edition of Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future retains its current content and memorable themes of Science, Sustainability and Stewardship while expanding on the reader-friendly approach with built-in tools that make Wright/Boorse a bestseller. Presenting the most current and relevant Environmental Science issues and research along with new Concept Check questions and Understand the Data questions, the text and MasteringEnvironmentalScience work together to help readers understand the science behind environmental issues. Also available with MasteringEnvironmentalScience(TM). MasteringEnvironmentalScience is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment system designed to improve results by helping students quickly master concepts. Students benefit from self-paced tutorials that feature personalized wrong-answer feedback and hints that emulate the office-hour experience and help keep students on track. With a wide range of interactive, engaging, and assignable activities, students are encouraged to actively learn and retain tough course concepts. For the Thirteenth Edition, MasteringEnvironmentalScience has been significantly updated to include new video assignments that expose students to real environmental issues and new coaching activities that help students build science literacy skills. Note: You are purchasing a standalone product; MasteringEnvironmentalScience does not come packaged with this content. Students, if interested in purchasing this title with MasteringEnvironmentalScience, ask your instructor for the correct package ISBN and Course ID. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information. If you would like to purchase boththe physical text and MasteringEnvironmentalScience, search for: 013394591X / 9780133945911 Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Plus MasteringEnvironmentalScience with eText — Access Card Package Package consists of: *0134011279 / 978013401127 Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future*0134245601 / 9780134245607 MasteringEnvironmentalScience with Pearson eText — ValuePack Access Card — for Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future

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Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World

The history of the twentieth century is most often told through its world wars, the rise and fall of communism, or its economic upheavals. In his startling new book, J. R. McNeill gives us our first general account of what may prove to be the most significant dimension of the twentieth century: its environmental history. To a degree unprecedented in human history, we have refashioned the earth’s air, water, and soil, and the biosphere of which we are a part. Based on exhaustive research, McNeill’s story a compelling blend of anecdotes, data, and shrewd analysis never preaches: it is our definitive account. This is a volume in The Global Century Series (general editor, Paul Kennedy).

About the Author

J. R. McNeill is professor of history at Georgetown University. He is the author of The Mountains of the Mediterranean World and other works.

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A New Blueprint for a Green Economy

Published in 1989, Blueprint for a Green Economy presented, for the first time, practical policy measures for ‘greening’ modern economies and putting them on a path to sustainable development. This new book, written by two of the Blueprint for a Green Economy authors, revisits and updates its main messages by asking, first, what has been achieved in the past twenty years, and second, what more needs to be done to generate a truly ‘green economy’ in the twenty-first century? Blueprint for a Green Economy had one over-arching theme. Making economies more sustainable requires urgent progress in three key policy areas: valuing the environment, accounting for the environment and incentives for environmental improvement. Today, with the threat of global warming, the decline in major ecosystems and their services, and fears over energy security, achieving these goals is even more vital. The current book first summarizes the main messages from Blueprint for a Green Economy and explains why, given rapid and widespread global environmental degradation, they are still relevant. The book then examines the progress since Blueprint for a Green Economy in implementing policies and other measures to improve environmental valuation, accounting and incentives. Although much has been accomplished, additional advances are still required to green economies successfully. The book highlights the new policies and approaches needed for economic management of today’s environmental concerns. Over twenty years later, A New Blueprint for a Green Economy once again emphasizes practical policies for greening modern economies, and explains why such an economic roadmap to a greener future is essential, if modern economies are to develop successfully and sustainably.

About the Author

Edward B. Barbier is the John S. Bugas Professor of Economics at the University of Wyoming, USA. Anil Markandya is Scientific Director at the Basque Centre for Climate Change, Spain.

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Power Density: A Key to Understanding Energy Sources and Uses (MIT Press)

n this book, Vaclav Smil argues that power density is a key determinant of the nature and dynamics of energy systems. Any understanding of complex energy systems must rely on quantitative measures of many fundamental variables. Power density — the rate of energy flux per unit of area — is an important but largely overlooked measure. Smil provides the first systematic, quantitative appraisal of power density, offering detailed reviews of the power densities of renewable energy flows, fossil fuels, thermal electricity generation, and all common energy uses. Smil shows that careful quantification, critical appraisals, and revealing comparisons of power densities make possible a deeper understanding of the ways we harness, convert, and use energies. Conscientious assessment of power densities, he argues, proves particularly revealing when contrasting the fossil fuel–based energy system with renewable energy conversions. Smil explains that modern civilization has evolved as a direct expression of the high power densities of fossil fuel extraction. He argues that our inevitable (and desirable) move to new energy arrangements involving conversions of lower-density renewable energy sources will require our society — currently dominated by megacities and concentrated industrial production — to undergo a profound spatial restructuring of its energy system.

About the Author

Vaclav Smil is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the University of Manitoba. He is the author of more than thirty books, including Harvesting the Biosphere: What We Have Taken from Nature and, most recently, Made in the USA: The Rise and Retreat of American Manufacturing, both published by the MIT Press. In 2010 he was named by Foreign Policy as one of the Top 100 Global Thinkers. In 2013 Bill Gates wrote on his website that “there is no author whose books I look forward to more than Vaclav Smil.”

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Facing the Anthropocene: Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System

Known to us only through North African manuscripts, and translated into English for the first time, A Hundred and One Nights is a marvelous example of the rich tradition of popular Arabic storytelling. Like its more famous sibling, the Thousand and One Nights, this collection opens with the frame story of Shahrazad, the gifted vizier’s daughter who recounts imaginative tales night after night in an effort to distract the murderous king from taking her life. A Hundred and One Nights features an almost entirely different set of stories, however, each one more thrilling, amusing, and disturbing than the last. In them, we encounter tales of epic warriors, buried treasures, disappearing brides, cannibal demon women, fatal shipwrecks, and clever ruses, where human strength and ingenuity play out against a backdrop of inexorable, inscrutable fate. Although these tales draw on motifs and story elements that circulated across cultures, A Hundred and One Nights is distinctly rooted in Arabic literary culture and the Islamic tradition. It is also likely much older than Thousand and One Nights, drawing on Indian and Chinese antecedents. This careful edition and vibrant translation of A Hundred and One Nights promises to transport readers, new and veteran alike, into its fantastical realms of magic and wonder.

About the Author

Bruce Fudge is Professor of Arabic at the University of Geneva. He is the author of Qur?anic Hermeneutics: al-?abrisi and the Craft of Commentary (2011) as well as a number of articles on the interpretation of the Qur?an and medieval and modern Arabic literature.

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On the Edge: The State and Fate of the World’s Tropical Rainforests (Report to the Club of Rome)

In 1972, “The Limits to Growth” introduced the idea that world resources are limited. Soon after, people became aware of the threats to the world’s rainforests, the biggest terrestrial repositories of biodiversity and essential regulators of global air and water cycles. Since that time, new research and technological advances have greatly increased our knowledge of how rainforests are being affected by changing patterns of resource use. Increasing concern about climate change has made it more important than ever to understand the state of the world’s tropical forests. This book provides an up-to-date picture of the health of the world’s tropical forests. Claude Martin, an eminent scientist and conservationist, integrates information from remote imaging, ecology, and economics to explain deforestation and forest health throughout the world. He explains how urbanization, an increasingly global economy, and a worldwide demand for biofuels put new pressure on rainforest land. He examines the policies and market forces that have successfully preserved forests in some areas and discusses the economic benefits of protected areas. Using evidence from ice core records and past forest cover patterns, he predicts the most likely effects of climate change. Claude Martin brings his wealth of experience as an ecologist, director of the WWF, and advistor to various conservation organizations to bear on the latest research from around the world. Contributions from eight leading experts provide additional insight.

About the Author

Claude Martin has been engaged in tropical rainforest conservation since the 1970s and served as director general of WWF International from 1993–2005 where he pioneered rainforest conservation partnerships in all tropical rainforest regions. He brings his wealth of experience as an ecologist, director of the WWF, and advisor to various conservation organizations to bear on the latest research from around the world. Contributions from eight leading experts provide additional insight. Thomas E. Lovejoy is the former director of the U.S. conservation program of the WWF, chief biodiversity adviser to the World Bank and assistant secretary for Environment and External Affairs, Smithsonian Institution. Lovejoy is a professor of environmental science and policy at George Mason University.

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Fighting King Coal: The Challenges to Micromobilization in Central Appalachia

In the coal-mining region of Central Appalachia, mountaintop-removal mining and coal-industry-related flooding, water contamination, and illness have led to the emergence of a grassroots, women-driven environmental justice movement. But the number of local activists is small relative to the affected population, and recruiting movement participants from within the region is an ongoing challenge. In Fighting King Coal, Shannon Elizabeth Bell examines an understudied puzzle within social movement theory: why so few of the many people who suffer from industry-produced environmental hazards and pollution rise up to participate in social movements aimed at bringing about social justice and industry accountability. Using the coal-mining region of Central Appalachia as a case study, Bell investigates the challenges of micromobilization through in-depth interviews, participant observation, content analysis, geospatial viewshed analysis, and an eight-month “Photovoice” project — an innovative means of studying, in real time, the social dynamics affecting activist involvement in the region. Although the Photovoice participants took striking photographs and wrote movingly about the environmental destruction caused by coal production, only a few became activists. Bell reveals the importance of local identities to the success or failure of local recruitment efforts in social movement struggles, ultimately arguing that, if the local identities of environmental justice movements are lost, the movements may also lose their power.

About the Author

Shannon Elizabeth Bell is Assistant Professor of Sociology and Environmental Studies at the University of Kentucky. She is the author of Our Roots Run Deep as Ironweed: Appalachian Women and the Fight for Environmental Justice.

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Rainfall-Induced Soil Slope Failure: Stability Analysis and Probabilistic Assessment

Rainfall-induced landslides are common around the world. With global climate change, their frequency is increasing and the consequences are becoming greater. Previous studies assess them mostly from the perspective of a single discipline-correlating landslides with rainstorms, geomorphology and hydrology in order to establish a threshold prediction value for rainfall-induced landslides; analyzing the slope’s stability using a geomechanical approach; or assessing the risk from field records. Rainfall Induced Soil Slope Failure: Stability Analysis and Probabilistic Assessment integrates probabilistic approaches with the geotechnical modeling of slope failures under rainfall conditions with unsaturated soil. It covers theoretical models of rainfall infiltration and stability analysis, reliability analysis based on coupled hydro-mechanical modelling, stability of slopes with cracks, gravels and spatial heterogenous soils, and probabilistic model calibration based on measurement. It focuses on the uncertainties involved with rainfall-induced landslides and presents state-of-the art techniques and methods which characterize the uncertainties and quantify the probabilities and risk of rainfall-induced landslide hazards. Additionally, the authors cover: * The failure mechanisms of rainfall-induced slope failure * Commonly used infiltration and stability methods * The infiltration and stability of natural soil slopes with cracks and colluvium materials * Stability evaluation methods based on probabilistic approaches * The effect of spatial variability on unsaturated soil slopes and more.

About the Author

Lulu Zhang Lulu is a professor at Shanghai Jiaotong University, China. Jinhui Li is an associate professor at Harbin Institute of Technology, China. Xu Li is an associate professor at Beijing Jiaotong University, China. Jie Zhang is an associate professor at Tongji University, China. Hong Zhu is a research assistant at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

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Economics for Environmental Professionals

Environmental professionals are often called upon to find solutions to environmental degradation problems or to lead the way in planning to prevent them. Because they come mainly from the environmental and science disciplines, most environmental professionals have limited training in the fundamentals of economics. This book is designed to provide those professionals not only with the basic principles of economics for foundational purposes but also the economic pros and cons to consider when making critical decisions on environmental issues. Economics for Environmental Professionals provides a fully explanatory, quantitative, and practical introduction to a wide range of topics that make up the science of environmental economics. Moreover, it showcases the power of economic principles to explain and predict issues and current events impacting the environment. It discusses the economics relevant to the environmental mediums of air, water, and land and provides pertinent information on air toxics, hazardous wastes, and other related topics. It provides environmental professionals with the education not only to understand the nuts and bolts of economic analysis but also to conduct economic analyses. Throughout the book, the author joins economics and environmental practice with common-sense approaches and practical real-world examples. Designed to stimulate thought, the book explores strategies for maintaining a safe environment without excessive regulation and cost. With the information in this book, environmental professionals will have an understanding of the framework in which environmental problems exist, what they cost, how to pay for them, and what the payback is (if any).

About the Author

Frank R. Spellman, PhD, is a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the author of more than 90 books covering topics ranging from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to all areas of environmental science and occupational health. Dr. Spellman lectures on sewage treatment, water treatment, and homeland security, as well as on safety topics, throughout the country and teaches water/wastewater operator short courses at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg. He earned a BA in public administration, a BS in business management, an MBA, and both an MS and a PhD in environmental engineering.

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PNIE Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils 3rd Edition

For undergraduate courses in Introduction to Soils, Fundamentals of Soil Science, and Soil Management. With an emphasis on the fundamentals, this book explores the important world of soils and the principles that can be used to minimize the degradation and destruction of one of our most important natural resources. Fully updated in this edition, it includes the latest information on soil colloids; nutrient cycles and soil fertility; and soils and chemical pollution. This edition is filled with hundreds of new figures and photos and continues to use examples from many fields, including agriculture, forestry, and natural resources. Taking an ecological approach, it emphasizes how the soil system is interconnected and the principles behind each soil concept.

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