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Since the publication of the first edition over 50 years ago, this title has been the standard solid state physics text for physics students.
The principle of least action originates in the idea that, if nature has a purpose, it should follow a minimum or critical path. This simple principle, and its variants and generalizations, applies to optics, mechanics, electromagnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics, and provides an essential guide to understanding the beauty of physics. This unique text provides an accessible introduction to the action principle across these various fields of physics, and examines its history and fundamental role in science. It includes – with varying levels of mathematical sophistication – explanations from historical sources, discussion of classic papers, and original worked examples. The result is a story that is understandable to those with a modest mathematical background, as well as to researchers and students in physics and the history of physics.
A modern introduction to synchronization phenomena, this text presents recent discoveries and the current state of research in the field, from low-dimensional systems to complex networks. The book describes some of the main mechanisms of collective behaviour in dynamical systems, including simple coupled systems, chaotic systems, and systems of infinite-dimension. After introducing the reader to the basic concepts of nonlinear dynamics, the book explores the main synchronized states of coupled systems and describes the influence of noise and the occurrence of synchronous motion in multistable and spatially-extended systems. Finally, the authors discuss the underlying principles of collective dynamics on complex networks, providing an understanding of how networked systems are able to function as a whole in order to process information, perform coordinated tasks, and respond collectively to external perturbations. The demonstrations, numerous illustrations and application examples will help advanced graduate students and researchers gain an organic and complete understanding of the subject.
Environmental Chemistry: A global perspective describes the chemical principles which underpin the natural processes occurring within and between the air, water, and soil, and explores how human activities have impacted on these processes, giving rise to environmental issues of global concern.
- Strikes a perfect balance between depth and breadth of coverage, making it a one-stop shop for students of environmental chemistry
- Emphasizes general principles, covered at just the right depth for readers to develop a thorough understanding of natural processes
- Carefully structured explanations ensure that students from a variety of backgrounds can master the important chemical concepts
- In-text questions and end-of-chapter problems encourage students to check their understanding,and apply what they have learned to new scenarios and issues
- Main points given throughout each chapter highlight the key concepts being presented
- Online resources feature additional resources for lecturers to enhance the educational value of the text
New to this edition
- New topics now added, including asbestos, fracking, ocean acidification, and the chemistry of constructed wetlands
- Updated data and information throughout the book, particularly in chapters covering fast moving subjects such as stratospheric chemistry, the chemistry of urban and indoor atmospheres, and the chemistry of global climate
- A new Appendix explaining how to use online software to do speciation calculations
- New and improved learning features: more ‘Literature Links’ to direct students to the associated research in the field, additional ‘Fermi questions’ providing thought experiments which encourage strategic thinking, and new ‘Think about this’ boxes to encourage students to pause and reflect on the relevance of what they have learnt
- Examples and quantitative problems now further clarified with additional labelling and explanations
About the Author(s)
Gary W. vanLoon, Emeritus Professor, School of Environmental Studies Queen’s University, Canada, and Stephen J. Duffy, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Mount Allison University, Canada
Table of Contents
1: Environmental chemistry
Part A: The Earth’s atmosphere
2: The Earth’s atmosphere
3: Stratospheric chemistry – ozone
4: Tropospheric chemistry – smog
5: Tropospheric chemistry – precipitation
6: Atmospheric aerosols
7: Chemistry of urban and indoor atmospheres
8: The chemistry of global climate
Part B: The hydrosphere
9: The hydrosphere
10: Distribution of species in aquatic systems
11: Gases in water
12: Organic matter in water
13: Metals and semi-metals in the hydrosphere
14: Environmental chemistry of colloids and surfaces
15: Microbiological processes
16: Water pollution and water treatment chemistry
Part C: The terrestrial environment
17: The terrestrial environment
18: Soil properties
19: The chemistry of solid wastes
20: Toxic organic chemicals
21: The future Earth
Researchers believe that the universe is vast enough that life has evolved and become technological many times, – yet we have seen no trace of extraterrestrial intelligence. This conundrum, known as the Fermi pardox, is the deepest mystery in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Put simply, where is everybody?
An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry, International Edition, provides an accessible and comprehensive account of this fascinating multidisciplinary field. Assuming little prior knowledge, the text is ideal for those studying the subject for the first time. Part A of the book introduces the principles of drug action via targets such as receptors and enzymes. The book goes on to explore how drugs work at the molecular level (pharmacodynamics), and the processes involved in ensuring a drug meets its target (pharmacokinetics). Further sections cover the processes by which drugs are discovered and designed, and what has to happen before a drug can be made available to the public. The book concludes with a selection of current topics in medicinal chemistry, and a discussion of various key drug groups. The subject is brought to life throughout by engaging case studies highlighting particular drugs and the stories behind their discovery and development.
Dr Graham Patrick gained his BSc Honours at Glasgow University, winning the McKay-Smith Prize for Chemistry. He completed his PhD with Professor Kirby and Professor Robins studying the biosynthesis of gliotoxin and related fungal metabolites. Following this, he worked in the pharmaceutical industry as a research chemist and radiochemist on a variety of projects that included topic areas such as opioids, antibacterial agents and antidepressants.
His academic career has included positions at Leeds and Strathclyde Universities as well as the Australian National University. He joined the University of Paisley (now the University of the West of Scotland) in 1990, teaching medicinal chemistry and drug design.
Biochemistry: The Molecular Basis of Life is a one-semester text focusing on the essential biochemical principles that underpin the modern life sciences. The sixth edition offers deeper coverage of the chemistry of reactions while emphasizing the relationship between biochemistry and human biology. Equipping students with a complete view of the living state, Biochemistry: The Molecular Basis of Life emphasizes problem solving and applies biochemical principles to the fields of health, agriculture, engineering, and forensics. It strikes the perfect balance of biology and chemistry coverage, consistently placing biochemical principles into the context of the physiology of the cell and biomedical applications.
The provision of sustainable energy supplies for an expanding and increasingly productive world is one of the major issues facing civilisation today. Renewable Energy examines both the practical and economic potential of the renewable energy sources to meet this challenge. The underlyingphysical and technological principles behind deriving power from direct solar (solar thermal and photovoltaics), indirect solar (biomass, hydro, wind and wave) and non-solar (tidal and geothermal) energy sources are explained, within the context of their environmental impacts, their economics andtheir future prospects.Renewable Energy provides both perspective and detail on the relative merits and state of progress of technologies for utilizing the various ‘renewables’. The analysis considers emissions, sustainability, cost implications and energy security, as political and economic pressures move societytowards a low-carbon future. From an overview of basic energy conversion processes, through a discussion of the individual renewable sources, to a concluding examination of the prospects for their integration into national and international networks and the outlook for renewable energy, this bookprovides a valuable insight into prospects for the renewables.Online Resource Centre:Renewable Energy is accompanied by an Online Resource Centre which features: For students:* Auto- marked multiple choice questions to accompany each chapter* Curated links to further information and up-to-date energy statistics. For registered adopters of the book:* Figures from the book: available to download for use in lectures
How developments in science and technology may enable the emergence of purely digital minds — intelligent machines equal to or greater in power than the human brain. What do computers, cells, and brains have in common? Computers are electronic devices designed by humans; cells are biological entities crafted by evolution; brains are the containers and creators of our minds. But all are, in one way or another, information-processing devices. The power of the human brain is, so far, unequaled by any existing machine or known living being. Over eons of evolution, the brain has enabled us to develop tools and technology to make our lives easier. Our brains have even allowed us to develop computers that are almost as powerful as the human brain itself. In this book, Arlindo Oliveira describes how advances in science and technology could enable us to create digital minds. Exponential growth is a pattern built deep into the scheme of life, but technological change now promises to outstrip even evolutionary change. Oliveira describes technological and scientific advances that range from the discovery of laws that control the behavior of the electromagnetic fields to the development of computers. He calls natural selection the ultimate algorithm, discusses genetics and the evolution of the central nervous system, and describes the role that computer imaging has played in understanding and modeling the brain. Having considered the behavior of the unique system that creates a mind, he turns to an unavoidable question: Is the human brain the only system that can host a mind? If digital minds come into existence — and, Oliveira says, it is difficult to argue that they will not — what are the social, legal, and ethical implications? Will digital minds be our partners, or our rivals?
Signs, artwork, stories, and photographs from the March for Science Movement and community. In January 2017, an idea on social media launched the global March for Science movement. In a few short months, more than 600 cities, 250 partners, and countless volunteers banded together to organize a historical event that drew people of all backgrounds, interests, and political leanings. On April 22, 2017, more than one million marchers worldwide took to the streets to stand up for the importance of science in society and their own lives — and each of them has a story to tell. Through signs, artwork, stories, and photographs, Science Not Silence shares some of the voices from the March for Science movement. From Antarctica to the North Pole, from under the sea to the tops of mountains, whether alone or alongside thousands, people marched for science. A citizen scientist with advanced ALS spent countless hours creating an avatar using technology that tracks his eye movements so that he could give a speech. Couples carrying babies born using in vitro fertilization dressed them in shirts that said “Made By Science.” The former U.S. Chief Data Scientist spoke about what really makes America great. Activists championed the ways science should serve marginalized communities. Artists created stunning signs, patients marched with the doctors who saved them, and scientists marched with the community that supports them. Every story is a call to action. The march was just the beginning. Now the real work begins. Science Not Silence celebrates the success of the movement, amplifies the passion and creativity of its supporters, and reminds everyone how important it is to keep marching.
Questions about the physical world, the mind, and technology in conversations that reveal a rich seam of interacting ideas. Science today is more a process of collaboration than moments of individual “eurekas.” This book recreates that kind of synergy by offering a series of interconnected dialogues with leading scientists who are asked to reflect on key questions and concepts about the physical world, technology, and the mind. These thinkers offer both specific observations and broader comments about the intellectual traditions that inform these questions; doing so, they reveal a rich seam of interacting ideas. The persistent paradox of our era is that in a world of unprecedented access to information, many of the most important questions remain unsolved. These conversations (conducted by a veteran science writer, Adolfo Plasencia) reflect this, with scientists addressing such issues as intelligence, consciousness, global warming, energy, technology, matter, the possibility of another earth, changing the past, and even the philosophical curveball, “is the universe a hologram?” The dialogues discuss such fascinating aspects of the physical world as the function of the quantum bit, the primordial cosmology of the universe, and the wisdom of hewn stones. They offer optimistic but reasoned views of technology, considering convergence culture, algorithms, “Beauty ≠ Truth,” the hacker ethic, AI, and other topics. And they offer perspectives from a range of disciplines on intelligence, discussing subjects that include the neurophysiology of the brain, affective computing, collaborative innovation, and the wisdom of crowds. Conversations with Hal Abelson, Ricardo Baeza-Yates, John Perry Barlow, Javier Benedicto, José Bernabéu, Michail Bletsas, Jose M. Carmena, David Casacuberta, Yung Ho Chang, Ignacio Cirac, Gianluigi Colalucci, Avelino Corma, Bernardo Cuenca Grau, Javier Echeverria, José Hernández-Orallo, Hiroshi Ishii, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Henry Jenkins, Anne Margulies, Mario J. Molina, Tim O’Reilly, John Ochsendorf, Paul Osterman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Rosalind W. Picard, Howard Rheingold, Alejandro W. Rodriguez, Israel Ruiz, Sara Seager, Richard Stallman, Antonio Torralba, Bebo White, José María Yturralde
The third edition of Radiogenic Isotope Geology examines revolutionary changes in geochemical thinking that have occurred over the past fifteen years. Extinct-nuclide studies on meteorites have called into question fundamental geochemical models of the Earth, while new dating methods have challenged conventional views of Earth history. At the same time, the problem of global warming has raised new questions about the causes of past and present climate change. In the new edition, these and other recent issues are evaluated in their scholarly and historical context, so readers can understand the development of current ideas. Controversial theories, new analytical techniques, classic papers, and illustrative case studies all come under scrutiny in this book, providing an accessible introduction for students and critical commentary for researchers.