Language : English
Published : 2018-04-12
Pages : 384
Accounting for Oneself: Worth, Status, and the Social Order in Early Modern England
Worth, Status, and the Social Order in Early Modern England is a major new study of the social order in early modern England, as viewed and articulated from the bottom up. Engaging with how people from across the social spectrum placed themselves within the social order, it pieces together the language of self-description deployed by over 13,500 witnesses in English courts when answering questions designed to assess their creditworthiness. Spanning the period between 1550 and 1728, and with a broad geographical coverage, this study explores how men and women accounted for their ‘worth’ and described what they did for a living at differing points in the life-cycle. A corrective to top-down, male-centric accounts of the social order penned by elite observers, the perspective from below testifies to an intricate hierarchy based on sophisticated forms of social reckoning that were articulated throughout the social scale. A culture of appraisal was central to the competitive processes whereby people judged their own and others’ social positions. For the majority it was not land that was the yardstick of status but moveable property-the goods and chattels in people’s possession ranging from livestock to linens, tools to trading goods, tables to tubs, clothes to cushions. Such items were repositories of wealth and the security for the credit on which the bulk of early modern exchange depended. Worth, Status, and the Social Order in Early Modern England also sheds new light on women’s relationship to property, on gendered divisions of labour, and on early modern understandings of work which were linked as much to having as to getting a living. The view from below was not unchanging, but bears witness to the profound impact of widening social inequality that opened up a chasm between the middle ranks and the labouring poor between the mid-sixteenth and mid-seventeenth centuries. As a result, not only was the social hierarchy distorted beyond recognition, from the later-seventeenth century there was also a gradual yet fundamental reworking of the criteria informing the calculus of esteem. –Provided by publisher.’
Pre-Order (3-4 weeks)
He ended the Warring States Period. He unified China. He created the mammoth Great Wall. He standardised the Chinese written script. He had roads and carts standardised across the land, way before the modern concept of mass production was born. But he also did many things that would send shivers down your spine. He is none other than Qin Shihuang, the visionary First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty. Synonymous with the Qin Dynasty, Qin Shihuang was able to set up this empire by building upon the firm foundation laid by his illustrious ancestors. In reality, he consolidated their efforts and completed their work. Unfortunately, due to Qin Shihuang’s oppressive rule, the Qin Dynasty fell apart just four years after his death. Nevertheless, its influence far outshines its own 14-year existence. Therefore, knowledge of this dynasty is crucial to understanding China and her cultural tradition.
Craving pleasure as well as knowledge, Raphael Sanzio was quick to realize that his talent would only be truly appreciated in the liberal, carefree and extravagantly sensual atmosphere of Rome during its golden age under Julius II and Leo X.
Arriving in the city in 1508 at the age of twenty-five, he was entranced and seduced by life at the papal court and within a few months had emerged as the most brilliant star in its intellectual firmament. His art achieved a natural grace that was totally uninhibited and free from subjection. His death, at just thirty-seven, plunged the city into the kind of despair that follows the passing of an esteemed and much loved prince.
In this major new biography Antonio Forcellino retraces the meteoric arc of Raphael’s career by re-examining contemporary documents and accounts and interpreting the artist’s works with the eye of an expert art restorer. Raphael’s paintings are vividly described and placed in their historical context. Forcellino analyses Raphael’s techniques for producing the large frescos for which he is so famous, examines his working practices and his organization of what was a new kind of artistic workshop, and shows how his female portraits expressed and conveyed a new attitude to women.
This rich and nuanced account casts aside the misconceptions passed on by those critics who persistently tried to undermine Raphael’s mythical status, enabling one of the greatest artists of all time to re-emerge fully as both man and artist.
Throughout the history of China, many rulers had come and gone. Who are the ones still standing tall in the annals of history as a result of their outstanding contributions and awe-inspiring character?
These were the three Sage Kings and the Five Legendary Rulers who painstakingly laod the foundation for Chinese civilisation. They were followed by luminaries like Emperor Shihuang of the Qin Dynasty who first unified China, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty who brought unprecedented prosperity to the land, and Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty who contributed to the progress of the sciences. All these eminent emperors had one thing in common: their love for their people.
Who are the other great sovereigns who took personal responsibility for the people’s happiness? Read on and find out!
Also check out Infamous Chinese Emperors: Tales of Tyranny and Misrule for a glimpse of 13 of China’s most notorious emperors!
Just who are ‘the Malays’? This provocative study poses the question and considers how and why the answers have changed over time, and from one region to another. Anthony Milner develops a sustained argument about ethnicity and identity in an historical, ‘Malay’ context. The Malays is a comprehensive examination of the origins and development of Malay identity, ethnicity, and consciousness over the past five centuries.
- Covers the political, economic, and cultural development of the Malays
- Explores the Malay presence in Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, and South Africa, as well as the modern Malay show-state of Malaysia
- Offers diplomatic speculation about ways Malay ethnicity will develop and be challenged in the future