An Unexpected Journey: Path to the Presidency
Here Singapore’s President S.R. Nathan tells his own story, taking the reader back with him to his childhood, to modest beginnings and life as a runaway in Singapore and Malaya, and then the experience of renewed hope during the Japanese occupation. After a belated and limited university education, as well as a short spell as a social worker dealing with seafarers, he witnessed from inside the Labour Reserch Unit the birth of Singapore’s modern trade union movement. Shortly after Singapore achieved full independence, he joined the staff of the newly established Ministry of Foreign Affairs, retiring – as he thought – as Permanent Secretary. However, he did not retire. After being asked to run the Straits Times newspaper for a time, he served as High Commissioner in Malaysia and Ambassador in the United States. Few people have packed so much into a life. And then, at an age when most people are well beyond the end of their working lives, he was elected President of Singapore, in which role he has won the hearts of many people in Singapore and abroad.
About the Author
S.R. Nathan (1924-) was elected to the office of President of Singapore September 1st, 1999.
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Between inventing the concept of a universal computer in 1936 and breaking the German Enigma code during World War II, Alan Turing (1912-1954), the British founder of computer science and artificial intelligence, came to Princeton University to study mathematical logic. Some of the greatest logicians in the world–including Alonzo Church, Kurt Godel, John von Neumann, and Stephen Kleene–were at Princeton in the 1930s, and they were working on ideas that would lay the groundwork for what would become known as computer science. This book presents a facsimile of the original typescript of Turing’s fascinating and influential 1938 Princeton PhD thesis, one of the key documents in the history of mathematics and computer science. The book also features essays by Andrew Appel and Solomon Feferman that explain the still-unfolding significance of the ideas Turing developed at Princeton. A work of philosophy as well as mathematics, Turing’s thesis envisions a practical goal–a logical system to formalize mathematical proofs so they can be checked mechanically. If every step of a theorem could be verified mechanically, the burden on intuition would be limited to the axioms. Turing’s point, as Appel writes, is that “mathematical reasoning can be done, and should be done, in mechanizable formal logic.” Turing’s vision of “constructive systems of logic for practical use” has become reality: in the twenty-first century, automated “formal methods” are now routine. Presented here in its original form, this fascinating thesis is one of the key documents in the history of mathematics and computer science.
About the Author
Andrew W. Appel is the Eugene Higgins Professor and Chairman of the Department of Computer Science at Princeton University.
Antislavery campaigner, author, diplomat and political statesmen, Frederick Douglass was one of the greatest men of his age. A former slave himself, Frederick fought publicly against slavery and was an inspiration in the fight for social and political change. Written by Amanda Mitchison, find out about this life-long battle to fight for equality. * Sapphire/Band 16 books offer longer reads to develop children’s sustained engagement with texts and are more complex syntactically. * Text type: A biography * Curriculum links: History, Citizenship
Going Solo is an examination of the most significant demographic shift since the Baby Boom — the sharp increase in the number of people who live alone. In 1950, only 22 percent of American adults were single. Today, more than 50 percent of American adults are single and 31 million — roughly one out of every seven adults — live alone. In Going Solo, renowned sociologist and author Eric Klinenberg proves that these numbers are more than just a passing trend. They’re actually evidence of the biggest demographic shift since the Baby Boom. We are crafting new ways of living. Klinenberg explores the seismic impact “going solo” is having on culture, business, and politics. Though conventional wisdom tells us that living by oneself leads to loneliness and isolation, the facts tell us that most solo dwellers are deeply engaged in social and civic life. Compared with their married counterparts, they are more likely to eat out and exercise, go to art and music
About the Author
John Van Wyhe is a historian of science and one of the world’s leading experts on Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. He is a Fellow of Tembusu College, National University of Singapore, and a Senior Lecturer in the Departments of History and Biological Sciences.