Becoming Black Political Subjects: Movements and Ethno-Racial Rights in Colombia and Brazil
After decades of denying racism and underplaying cultural diversity, Latin American states began adopting transformative ethno-racial legislation in the late 1980s. In addition to symbolic recognition of indigenous peoples and black populations, governments in the region created a more pluralistic model of citizenship and made significant reforms in the areas of land, health, education, and development policy. Becoming Black Political Subjects explores this shift from color blindness to ethno-racial legislation in two of the most important cases in the region: Colombia and Brazil. Drawing on archival and ethnographic research, Tianna Paschel shows how, over a short period, black movements and their claims went from being marginalized to become institutionalized into the law, state bureaucracies, and mainstream politics. The strategic actions of a small group of black activists–working in the context of domestic unrest and the international community’s growing interest in ethno-racial issues–successfully brought about change. Paschel also examines the consequences of these reforms, including the institutionalization of certain ideas of blackness, the reconfiguration of black movement organizations, and the unmaking of black rights in the face of reactionary movements. Becoming Black Political Subjects offers important insights into the changing landscape of race and Latin American politics and provokes readers to adopt a more transnational and flexible understanding of social movements.
About the Author
Tianna S. Paschel is assistant professor of African American Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.
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This book was first published in Chinese by the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce in 1999. This is the English edition, released to mark the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II. More than 300 photographs complement this collection of essays, interviews and documents in this commemorative volume. Inspiring, moving and often grim, this book portrays life in Singapore before and after the Japanese Occupation (1942-1945), and serves as a reminder to young Singaporeans of the immense sacrifices that had been by the men and women who came before them.
What would life in Singapore have been like if our forefathers had not persevered and imagined how they could make things better? If not for hard-working and enterprising individuals like Tan Kah Kee, Tan Tock Seng, Mohammed Eunos bin Abdullah, Naraina Pillai, P Govindasamy Pillai and Edwin Tessensohn, Singapore might not have turned out the way she did. This book pays tribute to these pioneers, showcasing their life and their achievements in an illustrated format.
He ended the Warring States Period. He unified China. He created the mammoth Great Wall. He standardised the Chinese written script. He had roads and carts standardised across the land, way before the modern concept of mass production was born. But he also did many things that would send shivers down your spine. He is none other than Qin Shihuang, the visionary First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty. Synonymous with the Qin Dynasty, Qin Shihuang was able to set up this empire by building upon the firm foundation laid by his illustrious ancestors. In reality, he consolidated their efforts and completed their work. Unfortunately, due to Qin Shihuang’s oppressive rule, the Qin Dynasty fell apart just four years after his death. Nevertheless, its influence far outshines its own 14-year existence. Therefore, knowledge of this dynasty is crucial to understanding China and her cultural tradition.
Craving pleasure as well as knowledge, Raphael Sanzio was quick to realize that his talent would only be truly appreciated in the liberal, carefree and extravagantly sensual atmosphere of Rome during its golden age under Julius II and Leo X.
Arriving in the city in 1508 at the age of twenty-five, he was entranced and seduced by life at the papal court and within a few months had emerged as the most brilliant star in its intellectual firmament. His art achieved a natural grace that was totally uninhibited and free from subjection. His death, at just thirty-seven, plunged the city into the kind of despair that follows the passing of an esteemed and much loved prince.
In this major new biography Antonio Forcellino retraces the meteoric arc of Raphael’s career by re-examining contemporary documents and accounts and interpreting the artist’s works with the eye of an expert art restorer. Raphael’s paintings are vividly described and placed in their historical context. Forcellino analyses Raphael’s techniques for producing the large frescos for which he is so famous, examines his working practices and his organization of what was a new kind of artistic workshop, and shows how his female portraits expressed and conveyed a new attitude to women.
This rich and nuanced account casts aside the misconceptions passed on by those critics who persistently tried to undermine Raphael’s mythical status, enabling one of the greatest artists of all time to re-emerge fully as both man and artist.