Language : English
Published : 2017-09-30
Pages : 252
Courts and Democracies in Asia
What is the relationship between the strength of a country’s democracy and the ability of its courts to address deficiencies in the electoral process? Drawing a distinction between democracies that can be characterised as ‘dominant-party’ (for example Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong), ‘dynamic’ (for example India, South Korea, and Taiwan), and ‘fragile’ (for example Thailand, Pakistan ,and Bangladesh), this book explores how democracy sustains and is sustained by the exercise of judicial power. In dominant-party systems, courts can only pursue ‘dialogic’ pathways to constrain the government’s authoritarian tendencies. On the other hand, in dynamic democracies, courts can more successfully innovate and make systemic changes to the electoral system. Finally, in fragile democracies, where a country regularly oscillates between martial law and civilian rule, their courts tend to consistently overreach, and this often facilitates or precipitates a hostile take-over by the armed forces, and lead to the demise of the rule of law.
Calls by political leaders, social activists, and international policy and aid actors for accountability reforms to improve governance have never been more widespread. For some analysts, the unprecedented scale of these pressures reflects the functional imperatives and power of liberal and democratic institutions accompanying greater global economic integration. This book offers a different perspective, investigating the crucial role of contrasting ideologies informing accountability movements and mediating reform directions in Southeast Asia. It argues that the most influential ideologies are not those promoting the political authority of democratic sovereign people or of liberalism’s freely contracting individuals. Instead, in both post-authoritarian and authoritarian regimes, it is ideologies advancing the political authority of moral guardians interpreting or ordaining correct modes of behaviour for public officials. Elites exploit such ideologies to deflect and contain pressures for democratic and liberal reforms to governance institutions.
The book’s case studies include human rights, political decentralization, anticorruption, and social accountability reform movements in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. These studies highlight how effective propagation of moral ideologies is boosted by the presence of powerful organizations, notably religious bodies, political parties, and broadcast media. Meanwhile, civil society organizations of comparable clout advancing liberalism or democracy are lacking. The theoretical framework of the book has wide applicability. In other regions, with contrasting histories and political economies, the nature and extent of organizations and social actors shaping accountability politics will differ, but the importance of these factors to which ideologies prevail to shape reform directions will not.
Oxford Studies in Democratization is a series for scholars and students of comparative politics and related disciplines. Volumes concentrate on the comparative study of the democratization process that accompanied the decline and termination of the cold war. The geographical focus of the series is primarily Latin America, the Caribbean, Southern and Eastern Europe, and relevant experiences in Africa and Asia. The series editor is Laurence Whitehead, Official Fellow, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
An Introduction to Government and Politics continues with its traditional and trusted framework to equip readers with a comprehensive and logically consistent vocabulary for the study of politics, helping them to better see the relevance of government in their lives. This ninth edition has been streamlined, replacing dated material with current political realities, news events, and approaches in order to better situate the student for discussion about larger political issues. It retains its prominence as an authoritative and accessible text with a historical and “Canadianist” – based approach that appeals to the traditional Introduction to Political Science course.
Table of Contents
Introduction – The Study of Political Science Part One: Basic Concepts Chapter 1: Government and Politics Chapter 2: Power, Legitimacy, and Authority Chapter 3: Sovereignty, State, and Citizenship Chapter 4: The Nation Chapter 5: Political Culture and Socialization Chapter 6: Law Chapter 7: Constitutionalism Chapter 8: Cooperation under Anarchy Part Two: Ideology Chapter 9: Ideology Chapter 10: Liberalism Chapter 11: Conservatism Chapter 12: Socialism and Communism Chapter 13: Nationalism Chapter 14: Feminism Chapter 15: Environmentalism Part Three: Forms of Government Chapter 16: Classification of Political Systems Chapter 17: Liberal Democracy Chapter 18: Transitions to Democracy Chapter 19: Autocratic Systems of Government Chapter 20: Parliamentary and Presidential Systems Chapter 21: Unitary and Federal Systems Part Four: The Political Process Chapter 22: The Political Process Chapter 23: Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Social Movements: The Organization of Interests Chapter 24: Communications Media Chapter 25: Elections and Electoral Systems Chapter 26: Representative Assemblies Chapter 27: The Political Executive Chapter 28: The Administration Chapter 29: The Judiciary Notes Appendix A: Constitution Act, 1867 Appendix B: Constitution Act, 1982 Glossary Index
In an ideal world a book about human rights would simply deal with those rights that everybody on the planet enjoys because they are human. In the real world this book must show how societies have struggled and still struggle to achieve social justice. Humans are not perfect and therefore man’s inhumanity to man has been evident throughout history; however, thanks to the efforts of individuals, groups, institutions and governments, man’s humanity to man has also had a significant impact on people’s lives and will continue to do so in the future. Understanding past and present societies and considering future societies through a focus on human rights will help students participate as critical, active, informed and responsible citizens. How do people define and seek human rights? How do groups make decisions that impact on people’s lives? How do people participate individually and collectively in response to community challenges? Human rights is integral to all the conceptual strands of the Social Sciences curriculum, and through all levels. Identity, culture, organisation, place, environment, continuity, change, economic world – none of these can be examined without reference to human rights. While Human Rights sits firmly in the Social Studies strands, the concept of human rights is integral to the New Zealand curriculum. It is intrinsic in all its values key competencies, principles and learning areas. This book is accessible to all ability levels, especially Years 9 and 10, and encourages further research on student-orientated topics. It covers various settings, perspectives, processes, and essential skills while bringing into focus essential learning with New Zealand society.
Hicks & Goo’s Cases and Materials on Company Law guides students through the complexities of company law with a broad selection of source materials, extracts from governmental and non-governmental sources as well as traditional cases and materials that are placed in context with clear commentary. It covers all the principal areas of company law including corporate governance issues and securities and insolvency. The book concentrates on how the law facilitates and regulates the operation of companies, both large and small, reflecting the realities of current practice. Each section is preceded by a concise introduction to help students understand the significance of the material presented. Similarly, each case is preceded by a statement of its legal significance and a summary of the main facts. The book has been fully updated to include classic materials whilst retaining the breadth of sources. The contents have been restructured to reflect the way the course is taught and chapter introductions have been developed to place each chapter in context and examine how these relate to the subject as a whole.
About the Author
Alan Dignam is a Professor in Corporate Law at Queen Mary, University of London.