Tropical Forests and Global Atmospheric Change
Tropical forests represent the world’s most biodiverse ecosystems and play a key role in hydrology, carbon storage and exchange. Many of the human-induced pressures these regions are facing, e.g. fragmentation and deforestation, have been widely reported and well documented. However, there have been surprisingly few efforts to synthesize cutting-edge science in the area of tropical forest interaction with atmospheric change. At a time when our global atmosphere is undergoing a period of rapid change, both in terms of climate and in the cycling of essential elements such as carbon and nitrogen, a thorough and up-to-date analysis is now timely. This research level text, suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers in plant ecology, tropical forestry, climate change science, and conservation biology, explores the vigorous contemporary debate as to how rapidly tropical forests may be affected by atmospheric change, and what this may mean for their future.
About the Author
Oliver Phillips is Reader in Tropical Ecology in the Earth and Biosphere Institute, School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK, and Visiting Researcher at the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, USA. He was awarded the British Ecological Society’s ‘Founder Prize’ in 2004 for outstanding early career ecological research.
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With increasing global urbanization, the environments and ecologies of cities are often perceived to suffer. While pollution and destruction of green space and species may occur, cities also remain part of natural systems. Cities provide natural processes necessary for survival for humans and other living organisms in urban areas. Urban ecology elucidates some of these processes and sheds light on their importance to healthy, fulfilling urban livelihoods. Urban Ecology: Strategies for Green Infrastructure and Land Use provides background on issues relating to urban ecology and urban natural processes. The first section covers the types, values, and recognition of ecosystem services provided by natural processes in urban areas. The second section details the importance and potential of green spaces in urban areas. The third section focuses on biodiversity traits of cities, and the ways in which urbanization affects biodiversity indicators. Finally, the fourth section covers some of the tools and approaches available for urban planners and designers concerned with improving or maintaining urban environments and the services they provide. This easily accessible reference volume offers a comprehensive guide to this rapidly growing field. Case studies and up-to-date research provide urban planners with new options for creating cities that will meet the demands of the twenty-first century. Also appropriate for graduate students who are preparing for careers related to urban planning, this compendium captures and integrates the current work being done in this vitally important field.
About the Author
Kim Etingoff has a master’s degree in urban and environmental policy and planning from Tufts University. Her recent experience includes researching a report on food resiliency within the city of Boston with Initiative for a Competitive Inner City. She worked in partnership with Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative and Alternatives for Community and Environment to support a community food-planning process based in a Boston neighborhood, which was oriented toward creating a vehicle for community action around urban food issues, providing extensive background research to ground the resident-led planning process. She has worked in the Boston Mayor’s Office of New Urban Mechanics, and has also coordinated and developed programs in urban agriculture and nutrition education. In addition, she has many years of experience researching, writing, and editing educational and academic books on environmental and food issues.
Explains how GIS enhances the development of chemical fate and transport models
Over the past decade, researchers have discovered that geographic information systems (GIS) are not only excellent tools for managing and displaying maps, but also useful in the analysis of chemical fate and transport in the environment. Among its many benefits, GIS facilitates the identification of critical factors that drive chemical fate and transport. Moreover, GIS makes it easier to communicate and explain key model assumptions.
Based on the author’s firsthand experience in environmental assessment, GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling explores both GIS and chemical fate and transport modeling fundamentals, creating an interface between the two domains. It then explains how GIS analytical functions enable scientists to develop simple, yet comprehensive spatially explicit chemical fate and transport models that support real-world applications. In addition, the book features:
- Practical examples of GIS based model calculations that serve as templates for the development of new applications
- Exercises enabling readers to create their own GIS based models
- Accompanying website featuring downloadable datasets used in the book’s examples and exercises
- References to the literature, websites, data repositories, and online reports to facilitate further research
- Coverage of important topics such as spatial decision support systems and multi-criteria analysis as well as ecological and human health risk assessment in a spatial context
GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling makes a unique contribution to the environmental sciences by explaining how GIS analytical functions enhance the development and interpretation of chemical fate and transport models. Environmental scientists should turn to this book to gain a deeper understanding of the role of GIS in describing what happens to chemicals when they are released into the environment.
About the Author
ALBERTO PISTOCCHI, MSc Eng, MSc Phil, PhD, is Adjunct Professor of Spatial Decision Support Systems at the University of Trento, Italy, and the author of several scientific contributions to the fields of hydrology, environmental assessment, chemical fate and transport modeling, and spatial decision support systems. As a researcher, environmental analyst, and project manager, he has been working for the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, the Emilia Romagna regional government, and other private and public organizations. He is a founding partner (2001) and the scientific director of GECOsistema, a research spin-off from the University of Bologna, Italy.
Food webs have now been addressed in empirical and theoretical research for more than 50 years. Yet, even elementary foundational issues are still hotly debated. One difficulty is that a multitude of processes need to be taken into account to understand the patterns found empirically in the structure of food webs and communities.
Food Webs and Biodiversity develops a fresh, comprehensive perspective on food webs. Mechanistic explanations for several known macroecological patterns are derived from a few fundamental concepts, which are quantitatively linked to field-observables. An argument is developed that food webs will often be the key to understanding patterns of biodiversity at community level.
- Predicts generic characteristics of ecological communities in invasion-extirpation equilibrium.
- Generalizes the theory of competition to food webs with arbitrary topologies.
- Presents a new, testable quantitative theory for the mechanisms determining species richness in food webs, and other new results.
- Written by an internationally respected expert in the field.
With global warming and other pressures on ecosystems rising, understanding and protecting biodiversity is a cause of international concern. This highly topical book will be of interest to a wide ranging audience, including not only graduate students and practitioners in community and conservation ecology but also the complex-systems research community as well as mathematicians and physicists interested in the theory of networks.
About the Author
Axel G. Rossberg obtained an M.A. in theoretical physics at the University of Texas at Austin and a Ph.D. in complex-system physics at the University of Bayreuth. Since 2003 he is specializing on food-web theory and community ecology. To foster applications in the management context he recently joined UK’s Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (Cefas). He is also Senior Research Fellow at Queen’s University Belfast and Honorary Lecturer at University of East Anglia, and serves on the editorial board of The American Naturalist.
For the Balinese, the whole of nature is a perpetual resource: through centuries of carefully directed labor, the engineered landscape of the island’s rice terraces has taken shape. According to Stephen Lansing, the need for effective cooperation in water management links thousands of farmers together in hierarchies of productive relationships that span entire watersheds. Lansing describes the network of water temples that once managed the flow of irrigation water in the name of the Goddess of the Crater Lake. Using the techniques of ecological simulation modeling as well as cultural and historical analysis, Lansing argues that the symbolic system of temple rituals is not merely a reflection of utilitarian constraints but also a basic ingredient in the organization of production.