Showing 1–20 of 116 results
This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates, and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and practical applications in geomorphology, geography, soil-science, and geology.
This text presents an intuitive and robust mathematical image of fundamental particle physics based on a novel approach to quantum field theory, which is guided by four carefully motivated metaphysical postulates. In particular, the book explores a dissipative approach to quantum field theory, which is illustrated for scalar field theory and quantum electrodynamics, and proposes an attractive explanation of the Planck scale in quantum gravity. Offering a radically new perspective on this topic, the book focuses on the conceptual foundations of quantum field theory and ontological questions. It also suggests a new stochastic simulation technique in quantum field theory which is complementary to existing ones. Encouraging rigor in a field containing many mathematical subtleties and pitfalls this text is a helpful companion for students of physics and philosophers interested in quantum field theory, and it allows readers to gain an intuitive rather than a formal understanding.
Providing the first worldwide survey of active earthquake faults, this book focuses on those described as ‘seismic time bombs’ – with the potential to destroy large cities in the developing world such as Port au Prince, Kabul, Tehran and Caracas. Leading international earthquake expert, Robert Yeats, explores both the regional and plate-tectonic context of active faults, providing the background for seismic hazard evaluation in planning large-scale projects such as nuclear power plants or hydroelectric dams. He also highlights work done in more advanced seismogenic countries like Japan, the United States, New Zealand and China, providing an important basis for upgrading building standards and other laws in developing nations. The book also explores the impact of major quakes on social development through history. It will form an accessible reference for analysts and consulting firms, and a convenient overview for academics and students of geoscience, geotechnical engineering and civil engineering, and land-use planning.
Tea is big business. After water, tea is believed to be the most widely consumed beverage in the world. And yet, as productivity increases, the real price of tea declines while labour costs continue to rise. Tea remains a labour intensive industry. With a distinguished career spanning over 50 years and rich experience in diverse crops, Mike Carr is eminently qualified to indulge in an intelligent discourse on tea agronomy. In addition to a comprehensive review of the principal tea growing regions worldwide in terms of structure, productivity and principal constraints, he has attempted to question and seeks to find the associated experimental evidence needed to support current and future crop management practices. The book will assist all those involved in the tea industry to become creative thinkers and to question accepted practices. International in content, it will appeal to practitioners and students from tea growing countries worldwide.
The physics of emission, absorption and interaction of light in astrophysics and in laboratory plasmas is developed from first principles and applied across various fields, from quantum mechanics, electricity and magnetism, to statistical physics. This text links undergraduate level atomic and radiation physics with the advanced material required for postgraduate study and research.
Ongoing advances in Solar System exploration continue to reveal its splendour and diversity in remarkable detail. This undergraduate-level textbook presents fascinating descriptions and colour images of the bodies in the Solar System, the processes that occur upon and within them, and their origins and evolution. It highlights important concepts and techniques in boxed summaries, while questions and exercises are embedded at appropriate points throughout the text, with full solutions provided. Written and edited by a team of practising planetary scientists, this third edition has been updated to reflect our current knowledge. It is ideal for introductory courses on the subject, and is suitable for self-study. The text is supported by online resources, hosted at www.cambridge.org/solarsystem3, which include selected figures from the book, self-assessment questions and sample tutor assignments, with outlines of suggested answers.
Analytical mechanics is the foundation of many areas of theoretical physics including quantum theory and statistical mechanics, and has wide-ranging applications in engineering and celestial mechanics. This introduction to the basic principles and methods of analytical mechanics covers Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, rigid bodies, small oscillations, canonical transformations and Hamilton-Jacobi theory. This fully up-to-date textbook includes detailed mathematical appendices and addresses a number of advanced topics, some of them of a geometric or topological character. These include Bertrand’s theorem, proof that action is least, spontaneous symmetry breakdown, constrained Hamiltonian systems, non-integrability criteria, KAM theory, classical field theory, Lyapunov functions, geometric phases and Poisson manifolds. Providing worked examples, end-of-chapter problems, and discussion of ongoing research in the field, it is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students studying analytical mechanics.
Graph theory can be applied to ecological questions in many ways, and more insights can be gained by expanding the range of graph theoretical concepts applied to a specific system. But how do you know which methods might be used? And what do you do with the graph once it has been obtained? This book provides a broad introduction to the application of graph theory in different ecological systems, providing practical guidance for researchers in ecology and related fields. Readers are guided through the creation of an appropriate graph for the system being studied, including the application of spatial, spatio-temporal, and more abstract structural process graphs. Simple figures accompany the explanations to add clarity, and a broad range of ecological phenomena from many ecological systems are covered. This is the ideal book for graduate students and researchers looking to apply graph theoretical methods in their work.
This new edition of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is an accurate, readable and accessible translation of one of the world’s greatest ethical works. Based on lectures Aristotle gave in Athens in the fourth century BCE, Nicomachean Ethics is one of the most significant works in moral philosophy, and has profoundly influenced the whole course of subsequent philosophical endeavour. It offers seminal, practically oriented discussions of many central ethical issues, including the role of luck in human well-being, moral education, responsibility, courage, justice, moral weakness, friendship and pleasure, with an emphasis on the exercise of virtue as the key to human happiness. This second edition offers an updated editor’s introduction and suggestions for further reading, and incorporates the line numbers as well as the page numbers of the Greek text. With its emphasis on accuracy and readability, it will enable readers without Greek to come as close as possible to Aristotle’s work.
Introduction to modern methods for classical and quantum fields in general relativity / Thierry Daudé, Dietrich Häfner, and Jean-Philippe Nicolas — Geometry of black hole spacetimes / Lars Andersson, Thomas B. Ackdahl, and Pieter Blue — An introduction to Quantum Field Theory on curved space-times / Christian Gerard — A minicourse on microlocal analysis for wave propagation / Andras Vasy — An introduction to conformal geometry and tractor calculus, with a view to applications in general relativity / Sean N. Curry and A. Rod Gover
Thoroughly revised and updated for the second edition, this comprehensive textbook integrates basic and advanced concepts of mechanics with numerical methods and biomedical applications. Coverage is expanded to include a complete introduction to vector and tensor calculus, and new or fully updated chapters on biological materials and continuum mechanics, motion, deformation and rotation, and constitutive modelling of solids and fluids. Topics such as kinematics, equilibrium, and stresses and strains are also included, as well as the mechanical behaviour of fibres and the analysis of one-dimensional continuous elastic media. Numerical solution procedures based on the Finite Element Method are presented, with accompanying MATLAB-based software and dozens of new biomedical engineering examples and exercises allowing readers to practise and improve their skills. Solutions for instructors are also available online. This is the definitive guide for both undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in biomechanics.
Fossils are essential to the reconstruction of the evolution of life and episodes in Earth history. Knowledge of biomineralization – the processes associated with the formation of mineralized biological structures – is essential to properly evaluate data derived from fossils. This book emphasizes skeletal formation and fossilization in a geologic framework in order to understand evolution, relationships between fossil groups, and the use of biomineral materials as geochemical proxies for understanding ancient oceans and climates. The focus is on shells and skeletons of calcareous organisms, and the book explores the fine structures and mode of growth of the characteristic crystalline units, taking advantage of most recent physical methodological advances. The book is richly illustrated and will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in paleontology, Earth history, evolution, sedimentology, geochemistry, and materials science.
Bird song is one of the most remarkable and impressive sounds in the natural world, and has inspired not only students of natural history, but also great writers, poets and composers. Extensively updated from the first edition, the main thrust of this book is to suggest that the two main functions of song are attracting a mate and defending territory. It shows how this evolutionary pressure has led to the amazing variety and complexity we see in the songs of different species throughout the world. Writing primarily for students and researchers in animal behavior, the authors review over 1000 scientific papers and reveal how scientists are beginning to unravel and understand how and why birds communicate with the elaborate vocalizations we call song. Highly illustrated throughout and written in straightforward language, Bird Song also holds appeal for amateur ornithologists with some knowledge of biology.
Buoyancy is one of the main forces driving flows on our planet, especially in the oceans and atmosphere. These flows range from buoyant coastal currents to dense overflows in the ocean, and from avalanches to volcanic pyroclastic flows on the Earth’s surface. This book brings together contributions by leading world scientists to summarize our present theoretical, observational, experimental and modeling understanding of buoyancy-driven flows. Buoyancy-driven currents play a key role in the global ocean circulation and in climate variability through their impact on deep-water formation. Buoyancy-driven currents are also primarily responsible for the redistribution of fresh water throughout the world’s oceans. This book is an invaluable resource for advanced students and researchers in oceanography, geophysical fluid dynamics, atmospheric science and the wider Earth sciences who need a state-of-the-art reference on buoyancy-driven flows.
The duty to keep customer information confidential affects banks on a daily basis. Bank secrecy regimes around the world differ and multi-national banks can find themselves in conflicted positions with a duty to protect information in one jurisdiction and a duty to disclose it in another. This problem has been heightened by the international trend promoting information disclosure in order to combat tax evasion, money laundering and terrorist financing. The US Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) is perhaps the most well-known. At the same time, data protection legislation is proliferating around the world. This book offers a holistic treatment of bank secrecy in major financial jurisdictions around the world, east and west, by jurisdictional experts as well as chapters by subject specialists covering the related areas of confidentiality in its broader privacy context, data protection, conflicts of laws, and exchange of information for the purposes of combatting international crime.
A cell, whose spatial extent is small compared with a surrounding flow, can develop inside a vortex. Such cells, often referred to as vortex breakdown bubbles, provide stable and clean flame in combustion chambers; they also reduce the lift force of delta wings. This book analyzes cells in slow and fast, one- and two-fluid flows and describes the mechanisms of cell generation: (a) minimal energy dissipation, (b) competing forces, (c) jet entrainment, and (d) swirl decay. The book explains the vortex breakdown appearance, discusses its features, and indicates means of its control. Written in acceptable, non-math-heavy format, it stands to be a useful learning tool for engineers working with combustion chambers, chemical and biological reactors, and delta-wing designs.
Small property houses provide living space to about eight million migrant workers, office space for start-ups, grassroots police stations and public schools; their contribution to the economic growth and urbanization of a city is immense. The interaction between the small property sector and the formal legal order has a long history and small property has become an established engine of social and legal change. Chinese Small Property presents vivid stories about how institutional entrepreneurs worked together to create an impersonal market outside of the formal legal system to support millions of transactions. Qiao uses an eleven-month fieldwork project in Shenzhen – China’s first special economic zone that has grown to a mega city with over fifteen million people – to demonstrate this. A thorough and detailed investigation into small property rights in China, Chinese Small Property is an invaluable source of new information for students and scholars of the field.
About the Author
Shitong Qiao is Assistant Professor of Law at The University of Hong Kong and New York University Global Professor of Law, fall 2017. Qiao graduated from top Chinese and US law schools with numerous prizes, including the Top Academic Prize of Peking University and the Judge Ralph K. Winter Prize of Yale University, Connecticut. He regularly advises government agencies, inside and outside China, on Chinese land regime. His publications on property and social norms have appeared in leading English and Chinese law journals.
‘Can a vibrant real estate market arise in a nation with a stunted legal system? Hernando de Soto famously thought not. Splendidly interweaving field findings with social-scientific theory, Shitong Qiao dismantles the de Soto thesis. In many Chinese cities, booming housing markets have rested largely on informal understandings.’ Robert Ellickson, Walter E. Meyer Professor of Property and Urban Law, Yale Law School ‘In this remarkable book, Shitong Qiao not only illustrates the intricacies of China’s booming periurban land market but also demonstrates how Chinese peasants, together with newly urbanizing industrial workers, have fashioned extensive systems of informal ‘small property’ commercial land transactions, in spite of a legal system that purportedly forbids them. Qiao’s book offers a nuanced discussion of the relationships between law and social norms in Chinese land markets, along with a significant rejoinder to the view that dynamic land markets depend on formal systems of property law.’ Carol M. Rose, University of Arizona ‘A fascinating exploration of the lively housing market that arose in suburban Shenzhen outside the framework of formal law. Based on in-depth field research, Qiao documents the residential building boom, and he then assesses both the strengths and the ultimate limitations of extra-legal arrangements as engines of development.’ Susan Rose-Ackerman, Yale University ‘In this multi-disciplinary work, Qiao has taken Robert Ellickson’s pioneering work on social norms and property rights from rural California to Shenzhen, China, one of the world’s fastest growing, most complex urban markets. In doing so he has demonstrated that much of what we thought we knew about law, property rights, social norms, and development was incomplete at best and flat wrong at worst.’ Frank Upham, Wilf Family Professor of Property Law, New York University School of Law
This new translation makes one of the most important texts in ancient philosophy freshly available to modern readers. Cicero is increasingly being appreciated as an intelligent and well-educated amateur philosopher, and in this work he presents the major ethical theories of his time in a way designed to get the reader philosophically engaged in the important debates. Raphael Woolf’s translation does justice to Cicero’s argumentative vigour as well as to the philosophical ideas involved, while Julia Annas’s introduction and notes provide a clear and accessible explanation of the philosophical context of the work. This edition will appeal to all readers interested in this central text in ancient philosophy and the history of ethics.
“This is a useful and important edition, not least because of the introduction and notes…This discussion grounds students and gives them a stake in the issues…This free translation is elegant, polished, and highly readable, and has the feel of intelligent contemporary English…this is certainly the text for a survey course or a Latinless reader, and a wide range of readers will want to have a look at the discussion and notes.” Religious Studies Review
Clays and clay minerals are the most abundant natural reactive solids on the Earth’s surface. This comprehensive review considers clay science in the context of the Critical Zone – the Earth’s permeable near-surface layer. Providing information on clays and clay minerals related to geological, biological and material sciences in the Critical Zone, it’s well suited for graduate students and researchers interested in clay science, and environmental and soil mineralogy. The book starts with an introduction to clays and clay minerals, their historic background, and a review of how clay science impacts the Critical Zone. Examples and applications demonstrate how clays regulate habitats and determine the availability of other resources. These examples are supported by quantitative field data, including numerical and graphical depictions of clay and clay mineral occurrences. The book concludes by covering Critical Zone clay geochemistry and clay sequences, including the industrial, synthetic medical and extra-terrestrial world of clay science.
Effective participatory water management requires effective co-engineering – the collective process whereby organisational decisions are made on how to bring stakeholders together. This trans-disciplinary book highlights the challenges involved in the collective initiation, design, implementation and evaluation of water planning and management processes. It demonstrates how successful management requires the effective handling of two participatory processes: the stakeholder water management process and the co-engineering process required to organise this. The book provides practical methods for supporting improved participatory processes, including the application of theory and models to aid decision-making. International case studies of these applications from Australia, Europe and all over the world, including Africa, are used to examine negotiations and leadership approaches, and their effects on the participatory stakeholder processes. This international review of participatory water governance forms an important resource for academic researchers in hydrology, environmental management and water policy, and also practitioners and policy-makers working in water management.