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Nickel (Ni), the fifth common element on the earth is widespread in the environment. Recently Ni has been proved essential for normal growth of many organisms, and at the same time Ni can become toxic to organisms when high in concentration. In several parts of the world, high Ni concentrations are causing serious environmental impacts. This book will be the first to discuss the problems related to Ni presence and raise the need for full investigation and more efforts to support this goal. It will present the recent advances in research on Ni nutrition of plants, Ni contamination of the environment–that is, soils, waters and plants–and methods of remediation.
This handbook focuses on the enormous literature applying statistical methodology and modelling to environmental and ecological processes. The 21st century statistics community has become increasingly interdisciplinary, bringing a large collection of modern tools to all areas of application in environmental processes. In addition, the environmental community has substantially increased its scope of data collection including observational data, satellite-derived data, and computer model output. The resultant impact in this latter community has been substantial; no longer are simple regression and analysis of variance methods adequate. The contribution of this handbook is to assemble a state-of-the-art view of this interface. Features: An internationally regarded editorial team. A distinguished collection of contributors. A thoroughly contemporary treatment of a substantial interdisciplinary interface. Written to engage both statisticians as well as quantitative environmental researchers. 34 chapters covering methodology, ecological processes, environmental exposure, and statistical methods in climate science. About the Editors: Alan E. Gelfand is the James B. Duke Professor of Statistical Science at Duke University. He is a leader in Bayesian spatial modeling and analysis including a successful book in this area with Banerjee and Carlin. Montse Fuentes is the Dean of the Virginia Commonwealth University College of Humanities and Sciences and a Professor of Statistics. She leads a broad research program in statistical methods for spatial large scale environmental health studies. Jennifer A. Hoeting is Professor of Statistics at Colorado State University. Her research is focused on Bayesian, computational, and spatial statistics applied to address challenging problems in ecology. Richard L. Smith is the Mark L. Reed III Distinguished Professor of Statistics and Professor of Biostatistics at the University of North Carolina. His research covers theoretical and applied aspects of environmental statistics including extreme value theory, spatial statistics and applications to climate change, air pollution and health.
During the past 20 years marine chemical ecology emerged as a respected field of study providing a better understanding of the role natural products play in organisms and their environments. Ample data in this book advocates the conservation of marine environments for future drug discovery efforts while sustaining the health of marine environments. Marine chemical ecology has expanded to include research in the areas of predator-prey interactions, marine microbial chemical ecology, and seasonal and geographical distribution of marine natural products.
“New experimental techniques in immunology have produced large and complex data sets that require quantitative modeling for analysis. This book provides a complete overview of computational immunology, from basic concepts to mathematical modeling at the single molecule, cellular, organism, and population levels. It showcases modern mechanistic models and their use in making predictions, designing experiments, and elucidating underlying biochemical processes. It begins with an introduction to data analysis, approximations, and assumptions used in model building. Core chapters address models and methods for studying immune responses, with fundamental concepts clearly defined”–
This book provides a comprehensive review of the subject of polaron and a thorough account of the sophisticated theories of the polaron. It explains the concept of the polaron physics in as simple a manner as possible and presents the theoretical techniques and mathematical derivations in great detail. Anybody who follows this book will develop a solid command over the subject both conceptually and technically and will be in a position to contribute to this field.
The first experiments with relativistic magnetrons (PM), resulted in notable results, in the USA – Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the USSR – Institute of Applied Physics. Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Gorky), and the Nuclear Physics Research Institute at the Tomsk State University, hundreds of megawatts to several gigawatts with an efficiency of 10-30% were obtained. Relativistic high-frequency electronics has now become one of the fastest growing areas of scientific research. This reference is devoted to theoretical and experimental studies of relativistic magnetrons and is written by a leading expert who worked directly on these systems.
Superfluidity and Superconductivity, Third Edition introduces the low-temperature phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity from a unified viewpoint. The book stresses the existence of a macroscopic wave function as a central principle, presents an extensive discussion of macroscopic theories, and includes full descriptions of relevant experimental results throughout. This edition also features an additional chapter on high-temperature superconductors. With problems at the end of most chapters as well as the careful elaboration of basic principles, this comprehensive survey of experiment and theory provides an accessible and invaluable foundation for graduate students studying low-temperature physics as well as senior undergraduates taking specialized courses.
“The environment, human health, and energy harvesting and storage remain strategic priorities in research. Multifunctional composite and hybrid materials have begun offering exciting solutions to each of these priority areas. Exploring this innovative field of research, this book covers a wide range of the materials, techniques, and approaches utilised in composite and hybrid structures. It will be of use for young scientists entering the fields of nanoscience, material sciences, and bioengineering, as well as experienced researchers looking for a review of new advances and patents in this field in recent years”–
This book discusses some of the innumerable ways in which computational methods can be used to facilitate research in biology and medicine – from storing enormous amounts of biological data to solving complex biological problems and enhancing treatment of various grave diseases.
In the dynamic digital age, the widespread use of computers has transformed engineering and science. A realistic and successful solution of an engineering problem usually begins with an accurate physical model of the problem and a proper understanding of the assumptions employed. With computers and appropriate software we can model and analyze complex physical systems and problems. However, efficient and accurate use of numerical results obtained from computer programs requires considerable background and advanced working knowledge to avoid blunders and the blind acceptance of computer results. This book provides the background and knowledge necessary to avoid these pitfalls, especially the most commonly used numerical methods employed in the solution of physical problems. It offers an in-depth presentation of the numerical methods for scales from nano to macro in nine self-contained chapters with extensive problems and up-to-date references, covering: Trends and new developments in simulation and computation Weighted residuals methods Finite difference methods Finite element methods Finite strip/layer/prism methods Boundary element methods Meshless methods Molecular dynamics Multiphysics problems Multiscale methods
Book presents a detailed study of the potential technologies for coupling solar energy and cooling systems. It starts with the theoretical background on the refrigeration cycles and their thermodynamic analysis followed by description of different technologies for solar cooling.
The history of gears with asymmetric teeth is not sufficiently recorded in modern gear literature, with some gear researchers concluding that asymmetric tooth gears were discovered just several decades ago. This book sheds light upon the origins and state of asymmetric gearing, referencing technical articles from the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. As a practicing gear engineer with nearly 40 years’ experience, author Alex Kapelevich has successfully implemented asymmetric gears in a variety of custom gear transmissions. This book addresses all aspects of asymmetric gear development, including theoretical fundamentals; tooth geometry optimization; stress analysis and rating; design and production specifics; analytical and experimental comparison to the best symmetric gears; and application examples. Readers are encouraged to look beyond the status quo established by traditional gear design, and to apply principles of asymmetric gearing to actual gear design. Optimal solutions are presented for gear drives that will maximize technical performance and marketability.