Showing 1–20 of 32 results

$58.10

An exploration of moral stress, distress, and injuries inherent in modern society through the maps that pervade academic and public communications worlds.In Ethics in Everyday Places, ethicist and geographer Tom Koch considers what happens when, as he puts it, “you do everything right but know you’ve done something wrong.” The resulting moral stress and injury, he argues, are pervasive in modern Western society. Koch makes his argument “from the ground up,” from the perspective of average persons, and through a revealing series of maps in which issues of ethics and morality are embedded.The book begins with a general grounding in both moral stress and mapping as a means of investigation. The author then examines the ethical dilemmas of mapmakers and others in the popular media and the sciences, including graphic artists, journalists, researchers, and social scientists. Koch expands from the particular to the general, from mapmaker and journalist to the readers of maps and news. He explores the moral stress and injury in educational funding, poverty, and income inequality (“Why aren’t we angry that one in eight fellow citizens lives in federally certified poverty?”), transportation modeling (seen in the iconic map of the London transit system and the hidden realities of exclusion), and U.S. graft organ transplantation.This uniquely interdisciplinary work rewrites our understanding of the nature of moral stress, distress and injury, and ethics in modern life. Written accessibly and engagingly, it transforms how we think of ethics — personal and professional — amid the often conflicting moral injunctions across modern society.

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Auctions

How auctions work, in theory and practice, with clear explanations and real-world examples that range from government procurement to eBay.Although it is among the oldest of market institutions, the auction is ubiquitous in today’s economy, used for everything from government procurement to selling advertising on the Internet to course assignment at MIT’s Sloan School. And yet beyond the small number of economists who specialize in the subject, few people understand how auctions really work. This concise, accessible, and engaging book explains both the theory and the practice of auctions. It describes the main auction formats and pricing rules, develops a simple model to explain bidder behavior, and provides a range of real-world examples.The authors explain what constitutes an auction and how auctions can be modeled as games of asymmetric information — that is, games in which some players know something that other players do not. They characterize behavior in these strategic situations and maintain a focus on the real world by illustrating their discussions with examples that include not just auctions held by eBay and Sotheby’s, but those used by Google, the U.S. Treasury, TaskRabbit, and charities. Readers will begin to understand how economists model auctions and how the rules of the auction shape bidder incentives. They will appreciate the role auctions play in our modern economy and understand why these selling mechanisms are so resilient.

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Balancing Green: When to Embrace Sustainability in a Business

An expert on business strategy offers a pragmatic take on how businesses of all sizes balance the competing demands of profitability and employment with sustainability. The demands and stresses on companies only grow as executives face a multitude of competing business goals. Their stakeholders are interested in corporate profits, jobs, business growth, and environmental sustainability. In this book, business strategy expert Yossi Sheffi offers a pragmatic take on how businesses of all sizes — from Coca Cola and Siemens to Dr. Bronner’s Magical Soaps and Patagonia — navigate these competing goals. Drawing on extensive interviews with more than 250 executives, Sheffi examines the challenges, solutions, and implications of balancing traditional business goals with sustainability. Sheffi, author of the widely read The Resilient Enterprise, argues that business executives’ personal opinions on environmental sustainability are irrelevant. The business merits of environmental sustainability are based on the fact that even the most ardent climate change skeptics in the C-suite face natural resource costs, public relations problems, regulatory burdens, and a green consumer segment. Sheffi presents three basic business rationales for corporate sustainability efforts: cutting costs, reducing risk, and achieving growth. For companies, sustainability is not a simple case of “profits versus planet” but is instead a more subtle issue of (some) people versus (other) people — those looking for jobs and inexpensive goods versus others who seek a pristine environment. This book aims to help companies satisfy these conflicting motivations for both economic growth and environmental sustainability.

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Balancing Green: When to Embrace Sustainability in a Business

$70.58 $42.90

An expert on business strategy offers a pragmatic take on how businesses of all sizes balance the competing demands of profitability and employment with sustainability. The demands and stresses on companies only grow as executives face a multitude of competing business goals. Their stakeholders are interested in corporate profits, jobs, business growth, and environmental sustainability. In this book, business strategy expert Yossi Sheffi offers a pragmatic take on how businesses of all sizes — from Coca Cola and Siemens to Dr. Bronner’s Magical Soaps and Patagonia — navigate these competing goals. Drawing on extensive interviews with more than 250 executives, Sheffi examines the challenges, solutions, and implications of balancing traditional business goals with sustainability. Sheffi, author of the widely read The Resilient Enterprise, argues that business executives’ personal opinions on environmental sustainability are irrelevant. The business merits of environmental sustainability are based on the fact that even the most ardent climate change skeptics in the C-suite face natural resource costs, public relations problems, regulatory burdens, and a green consumer segment. Sheffi presents three basic business rationales for corporate sustainability efforts: cutting costs, reducing risk, and achieving growth. For companies, sustainability is not a simple case of “profits versus planet” but is instead a more subtle issue of (some) people versus (other) people — those looking for jobs and inexpensive goods versus others who seek a pristine environment. This book aims to help companies satisfy these conflicting motivations for both economic growth and environmental sustainability.

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Cloud Computing

Why cloud computing represents a paradigm shift for business, and how business users can best take advantage of cloud services.Most of the information available on cloud computing is either highly technical, with details that are irrelevant to non-technologists, or pure marketing hype, in which the cloud is simply a selling point. This book, however, explains the cloud from the user’s viewpoint — the business user’s in particular. Nayan Ruparelia explains what the cloud is, when to use it (and when not to), how to select a cloud service, how to integrate it with other technologies, and what the best practices are for using cloud computing. Cutting through the hype, Ruparelia cites the simple and basic definition of cloud computing from the National Institute of Science and Technology: a model enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. Thus with cloud computing, businesses can harness information technology resources usually available only to large enterprises. And this, Ruparelia demonstrates, represents a paradigm shift for business. It will ease funding for startups, alter business plans, and allow big businesses greater agility. Ruparelia discusses the key issues for any organization considering cloud computing: service level agreements, business service delivery and consumption, finance, legal jurisdiction, security, and social responsibility. He introduces novel concepts made possible by cloud computing: cloud cells, or specialist clouds for specific uses; the personal cloud; the cloud of things; and cloud service exchanges. He examines use case patterns in terms of infrastructure and platform, software information, and business process; and he explains how to transition to a cloud service. Current and future users will find this book an indispensable guide to the cloud.

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Common Sense, the Turing Test, and the Quest for Real AI

$31.72 $26.50

What artificial intelligence can tell us about the mind and intelligent behavior. What can artificial intelligence teach us about the mind? If AI’s underlying concept is that thinking is a computational process, then how can computation illuminate thinking? It’s a timely question. AI is all the rage, and the buzziest AI buzz surrounds adaptive machine learning: computer systems that learn intelligent behavior from massive amounts of data. This is what powers a driverless car, for example. In this book, Hector Levesque shifts the conversation to “good old fashioned artificial intelligence,” which is based not on heaps of data but on understanding commonsense intelligence. This kind of artificial intelligence is equipped to handle situations that depart from previous patterns — as we do in real life, when, for example, we encounter a washed-out bridge or when the barista informs us there’s no more soy milk. Levesque considers the role of language in learning. He argues that a computer program that passes the famous Turing Test could be a mindless zombie, and he proposes another way to test for intelligence — the Winograd Schema Test, developed by Levesque and his colleagues. “If our goal is to understand intelligent behavior, we had better understand the difference between making it and faking it,” he observes. He identifies a possible mechanism behind common sense and the capacity to call on background knowledge: the ability to represent objects of thought symbolically. As AI migrates more and more into everyday life, we should worry if systems without common sense are making decisions where common sense is needed.

Far Away

$16.65

A brilliant and unsettling play from one of the UK’s leading dramatists. At the opening of the play, a young girl is questioning her aunt about having seen her uncle hitting people with an iron bar; by the end, several years later, the whole world is at war – including birds and animals. Far Away is a howl of anguish at the increasing – and increasingly accepted – levels of inhumanity in a world seemingly perpetually involved in conflict. Far Away is a SET TEXT for AS/A-Level Drama (WJEC)

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Financial Modeling 4th Edition

Financial Modeling is now the standard text for explaining the implementation of financial models in Excel. This long-awaited fourth edition maintains the “cookbook” features and Excel dependence that have made the previous editions so popular. As in previous editions, basic and advanced models in the areas of corporate finance, portfolio management, options, and bonds are explained with detailed Excel spreadsheets. Sections on technical aspects of Excel and on the use of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) round out the book to make Financial Modeling a complete guide for the financial modeler. The new edition of Financial Modeling includes a number of innovations. A new section explains the principles of Monte Carlo methods and their application to portfolio management and exotic option valuation. A new chapter discusses term structure modeling, with special emphasis on the Nelson-Siegel model. The discussion of corporate valuation using pro forma models has been rounded out with the introduction of a new, simple model for corporate valuation based on accounting data and a minimal number of valuation parameters. Praise for earlier editions “Financial Modeling belongs on the desk of every finance professional. Its no-nonsense, hands-on approach makes it an indispensable tool.” — Hal R. Varian, Dean, School of Information Management and Systems, University of California, Berkeley ” Financial Modeling is highly recommended to readers who are interested in an introduction to basic, traditional approaches to financial modeling and analysis, as well as to those who want to learn more about applying spreadsheet software to financial analysis.” — Edward Weiss, Journal of Computational Intelligence in Finance “Benninga has a clear writing style and uses numerous illustrations, which make this book one of the best texts on using Excel for finance that I’ve seen.” — Ed McCarthy, Ticker Magazine

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Global Dystopias

$33.10

Stories, essays, and interviews explore dystopias that may offer lessons for the present.As the recent success of Margaret Atwood’s novel-turned-television hit Handmaid’s Tale shows us, dystopia is more than minatory fantasy; it offers a critical lens upon the present. “It is not only a kind of vocabulary and idiom,” says bestselling author and volume editor Junot Diaz. “It is a useful arena in which to begin to think about who we are becoming.”Bringing together some of the most prominent writers of science fiction and introducing fresh talent, this collection of stories, essays, and interviews explores global dystopias in apocalyptic landscapes and tech futures, in robot sentience and forever war. Global Dystopias engages the familiar horrors of George Orwell’s 1984 alongside new work by China Mieville, Tananarive Due, and Maria Dahvana Headley. In “Don’t Press Charges, and I Won’t Sue,” award-winning writer Charlie Jane Anders uses popularized stigmas toward transgender people to create a not-so-distant future in which conversion therapy is not only normalized, but funded by the government. Henry Farrell surveys the work of dystopian forebear Philip K. Dick and argues that distinctions between the present and the possible future aren’t always that clear. Contributors also include Margaret Atwood and award-winning speculative writer, Nalo Hopkinson.In the era of Trump, resurgent populism, and climate denial, this collection poses vital questions about politics and civic responsibility and subjectivity itself. If we have, as Diaz says, reached peak dystopia, then Global Dystopias might just be the handbook we need to survive it.ContributorsCharlie Jane Anders, Margaret Atwood, Tananarive Due, Maria Dahvana Headley, Nalo Hopkinson, Maureen McHugh, China Mieville, Alex Rivera, Jordy Rosenberg

Globalizing Innovation

$60.90

The impact of host country institutions and policy on innovation by multinational firms in emerging economies. In the past, multinational firms have looked to developing countries as sources of raw materials, markets, or production efficiencies, but rarely as locations for innovation. Today, however, R&D facilities and other indicators of multinational-linked innovation are becoming more common in emerging economies. In this book, Patrick Egan investigates patterns of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries, considering the impact of host country institutions and policy on the innovative activities undertaken by multinational firms. He examines the uneven spread of innovation-intensive foreign direct investment and emerging sectoral distributions, then develops a number of arguments about the determinants of multinational innovation in developing countries. Firms are attracted by a country’s supply of skilled labor and are often eager to innovate close to new markets; but, Egan finds, host country institutions and the configuration of the host country’s investment policies have a strong impact on firm decisions and evolving country investment profiles. Egan uses econometric analysis to identify determinants of multinational innovation, and examines differences among state institutions as a key variable. He then offers a detailed case study, assessing Ireland’s attempts to use foreign direct investment in innovation as a catalyst for development. While FDI is a potential vehicle for industrial upgrading, Egan cautions, it is neither necessary nor sufficient for development. Furthermore, innovation-intensive investments are not likely to develop linkages with local actors or otherwise embed themselves in host economies in the absence of active, discriminating policies channeled through coherent and coordinated institutions.

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How to Go Digital: Practical Wisdom to Help Drive Your Organization’s Digital Transformation

Advice on how companies can succeed in the new digital business environment. The most important skills a leader needs to succeed in a digital environment are not technical in nature but managerial — strategic vision, forward-looking perspective, change-oriented mindset. A company’s digital transformation does not involve abandoning widget-making for app developing or pursuing “disruption” at the cost of stability. Rather, it is about adopting business processes and practices that position organizations to compete effectively in the digital environment. More important than technology implementation are strategy, talent management, organizational structure, and leadership aligned for the digital world. How to Go Digital offers advice from management experts on how to steer your company into the digital future. The book will put you on the right strategic path, with articles from MIT Sloan Management Review on developing a digital strategy, reframing growth for a digital world, monetizing data, and generating sustainable value from social media. Talent acquisition and retention are addressed, with articles on HR analytics, data translators, and enabling employees to become brand ambassadors outside of the office. Operational makeovers are discussed in terms of sales, services, new technologies, and innovation. Contributors Allan Alter, Stephen J. Andriole, Bart Baesens, Gloria Barczak, Cynthia M. Beath, Alpheus Bingham, Didier Bonnet, Chris Brady, Joseph Byrum, Marina Candi, Manuel Cebrian, Marie-Cecile Cervellon, Simon Chadwick, Sophie De Winne, Mike Forde, Gerald C. Kane, Rahul Kapoor, David Kiron, Thomas Klueter, Mary C. Lacity, Rikard Lindgren, Pamela Lirio, Tucker J. Marion, Lars Mathiassen, Pete Maulik, Paul Michelman, Narendra Mulani, Pierre Nanterme, Doug Palmer, Alex “Sandy” Pentland, Anh Nguyen Phillips, Frank T. Piller, Iyad Rahwan, Deborah L. Roberts, Jeanne W. Ross, Ina M. Sebastian, Luc Sels, James E. Short, Fredrik Svahn, Steve Todd, Leslie P. Willcocks, H. James Wilson, Barbara H. Wixom

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Introduction to Deep Learning

A project-based guide to the basics of deep learning. This concise, project-driven guide to deep learning takes readers through a series of program-writing tasks that introduce them to the use of deep learning in such areas of artificial intelligence as computer vision, natural-language processing, and reinforcement learning. The author, a longtime artificial intelligence researcher specializing in natural-language processing, covers feed-forward neural nets, convolutional neural nets, word embeddings, recurrent neural nets, sequence-to-sequence learning, deep reinforcement learning, unsupervised models, and other fundamental concepts and techniques. Students and practitioners learn the basics of deep learning by working through programs in Tensorflow, an open-source machine learning framework. “I find I learn computer science material best by sitting down and writing programs,” the author writes, and the book reflects this approach. Each chapter includes a programming project, exercises, and references for further reading. An early chapter is devoted to Tensorflow and its interface with Python, the widely used programming language. Familiarity with linear algebra, multivariate calculus, and probability and statistics is required, as is a rudimentary knowledge of programming in Python. The book can be used in both undergraduate and graduate courses; practitioners will find it an essential reference.

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Is the Universe a Hologram?

$44.76 $36.50

Questions about the physical world, the mind, and technology in conversations that reveal a rich seam of interacting ideas. Science today is more a process of collaboration than moments of individual “eurekas.” This book recreates that kind of synergy by offering a series of interconnected dialogues with leading scientists who are asked to reflect on key questions and concepts about the physical world, technology, and the mind. These thinkers offer both specific observations and broader comments about the intellectual traditions that inform these questions; doing so, they reveal a rich seam of interacting ideas. The persistent paradox of our era is that in a world of unprecedented access to information, many of the most important questions remain unsolved. These conversations (conducted by a veteran science writer, Adolfo Plasencia) reflect this, with scientists addressing such issues as intelligence, consciousness, global warming, energy, technology, matter, the possibility of another earth, changing the past, and even the philosophical curveball, “is the universe a hologram?” The dialogues discuss such fascinating aspects of the physical world as the function of the quantum bit, the primordial cosmology of the universe, and the wisdom of hewn stones. They offer optimistic but reasoned views of technology, considering convergence culture, algorithms, “Beauty ≠ Truth,” the hacker ethic, AI, and other topics. And they offer perspectives from a range of disciplines on intelligence, discussing subjects that include the neurophysiology of the brain, affective computing, collaborative innovation, and the wisdom of crowds. Conversations with Hal Abelson, Ricardo Baeza-Yates, John Perry Barlow, Javier Benedicto, José Bernabéu, Michail Bletsas, Jose M. Carmena, David Casacuberta, Yung Ho Chang, Ignacio Cirac, Gianluigi Colalucci, Avelino Corma, Bernardo Cuenca Grau, Javier Echeverria, José Hernández-Orallo, Hiroshi Ishii, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Henry Jenkins, Anne Margulies, Mario J. Molina, Tim O’Reilly, John Ochsendorf, Paul Osterman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Rosalind W. Picard, Howard Rheingold, Alejandro W. Rodriguez, Israel Ruiz, Sara Seager, Richard Stallman, Antonio Torralba, Bebo White, José María Yturralde

Israel and the World Economy

$69.00

This book provides rigorous analysis of some of the major episodes during Israel’s economic transition and spells out, empirically, how globalization played a crucial role in advancing Israel’s economic progress. Economists and policy makers can gain insights as to how a globalized economy can take advantage of international trade, labor mobility, its international financial links, while at the same time navigate shocks like the 2008 global financial crisis. It discusses the collapse of the Soviet Union and the massive wave of high skill immigration to Israel which followed; the Great Moderation in inflation and employment fluctuations in the advanced economies, and the convergence of Israel’s inflation to the low world inflation rates; the 2008 Global Financial Crisis and the surprising robust performance of the Israeli economy; the rise of the Asian markets, recently opened up to Israel’s exports, which became abundant source of outward foreign direct investments; the global information technology surge and its spillovers to the emerging high-tech sector in Israel; brain drain facilitated by Israel’s higher education system; and the economic implications of the Palestinian-Israeli crisis. In addition to analyzing the past and current state of Israel, the book compares developments within the Israeli economy to developed and emerging-market economies in similar circumstances. It combines economic theory with empirical evidence, and includes a review of the literature covering earlier stages of Israel’s economic development.

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Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice 3rd Edition

$149.00 $100.90

A new, thoroughly updated edition of a comprehensive overview of knowledge management (KM), covering theoretical foundations, the KM process, tools, and professions. The ability to manage knowledge has become increasingly important in today’s knowledge economy. Knowledge is considered a valuable commodity, embedded in products and in the tacit knowledge of highly mobile individual employees. Knowledge management (KM) represents a deliberate and systematic approach to cultivating and sharing an organization’s knowledge base. This textbook and professional reference offers a comprehensive overview of the field. Drawing on ideas, tools, and techniques from such disciplines as sociology, cognitive science, organizational behavior, and information science, it describes KM theory and practice at the individual, community, and organizational levels. Chapters cover such topics as tacit and explicit knowledge, theoretical modeling of KM, the KM cycle from knowledge capture to knowledge use, KM tools, KM assessment, and KM professionals. This third edition has been completely revised and updated to reflect advances in the dynamic and emerging field of KM. The specific changes include extended treatment of tacit knowledge; integration of such newer technologies as social media, visualization, mobile technologies, and crowdsourcing; a new chapter on knowledge continuity, with key criteria for identifying knowledge at risk; material on how to identify, document, validate, share, and implement lessons learned and best practices; the addition of new categories of KM jobs; and a new emphasis on the role of KM in innovation. Supplementary materials for instructors are available online.

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Living Zen Remindfully

$43.35 $34.60

A seasoned Zen practitioner and neurologist looks more deeply at mindfulness, connecting it to our subconscious and to memory and creativity. This is a book for readers who want to probe more deeply into mindfulness. It goes beyond the casual, once-in-awhile meditation in popular culture, grounding mindfulness in daily practice, Zen teachings, and recent research in neuroscience. In Living Zen Remindfully, James Austin, author of the groundbreaking Zen and the Brain, describes authentic Zen training — the commitment to a process of regular, ongoing daily life practice. This training process enables us to unlearn unfruitful habits, develop more wholesome ones, and lead a more genuinely creative life. Austin shows that mindfulness can mean more than our being conscious of the immediate “now.” It can extend into the subconscious, where most of our brain’s activities take place, invisibly. Austin suggests ways that long-term meditative training helps cultivate the hidden, affirmative resource of our unconscious memory. Remindfulness, as Austin terms it, can help us to adapt more effectively and to live more authentic lives. Austin discusses different types of meditation, meditation and problem-solving, and the meaning of enlightenment. He addresses egocentrism (self-centeredness) and allocentrism (other-centeredness), and the blending of focal and global attention. He explains the remarkable processes that encode, store, and retrieve our memories, focusing on the covert, helpful remindful processes incubating at subconscious levels. And he considers the illuminating confluence of Zen, clinical neurology, and neuroscience. Finally, he describes an everyday life of “living Zen,” drawing on the poetry of Basho, the seventeenth-century haiku master.

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Post-Truth

How we arrived in a post-truth era, when “alternative facts” replace actual facts, and feelings have more weight than evidence.Are we living in a post-truth world, where “alternative facts” replace actual facts and feelings have more weight than evidence? How did we get here? In this volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, Lee McIntyre traces the development of the post-truth phenomenon from science denial through the rise of “fake news,” from our psychological blind spots to the public’s retreat into “information silos.”What, exactly, is post-truth? Is it wishful thinking, political spin, mass delusion, bold-faced lying? McIntyre analyzes recent examples — claims about inauguration crowd size, crime statistics, and the popular vote — and finds that post-truth is an assertion of ideological supremacy by which its practitioners try to compel someone to believe something regardless of the evidence. Yet post-truth didn’t begin with the 2016 election; the denial of scientific facts about smoking, evolution, vaccines, and climate change offers a road map for more widespread fact denial. Add to this the wired-in cognitive biases that make us feel that our conclusions are based on good reasoning even when they are not, the decline of traditional media and the rise of social media, and the emergence of fake news as a political tool, and we have the ideal conditions for post-truth. McIntyre also argues provocatively that the right wing borrowed from postmodernism — specifically, the idea that there is no such thing as objective truth — in its attacks on science and facts.McIntyre argues that we can fight post-truth, and that the first step in fighting post-truth is to understand it.

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Protecting Children Online?: Cyberbullying Policies of Social Media Companies

$60.90

A critical examination of efforts by social media companies — including Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram — to rein in cyberbullying by young users.High-profile cyberbullying cases often trigger exaggerated public concern about children’s use of social media. Large companies like Facebook respond by pointing to their existing anti-bullying mechanisms or coordinate with nongovernmental organizations to organize anti-cyberbullying efforts. Do these attempts at self-regulation work? In this book, Tijana Milosevic examines the effectiveness of efforts by social media companies — including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Snapchat, and Instagram — to rein in cyberbullying by young users. Milosevic analyzes the anti-bullying policies of fourteen major social media companies, as recorded in companies’ corporate documents, draws on interviews with company representatives and e-safety experts, and details the roles of nongovernmental organizations examining their ability to provide critical independent advice. She draws attention to lack of transparency in how companies handle bullying cases, emphasizing the need for a continuous independent evaluation of effectiveness of companies’ mechanisms, especially from children’s perspective. Milosevic argues that cyberbullying should be viewed in the context of children’s rights and as part of the larger social problem of the culture of humiliation. Milosevic looks into five digital bullying cases related to suicides, examining the pressures on the social media companies involved, the nature of the public discussion, and subsequent government regulation that did not necessarily address the problem in a way that benefits children. She emphasizes the need not only for protection but also for participation and empowerment — for finding a way to protect the vulnerable while ensuring the child’s right to participate in digital spaces.

Pseudoscience

$69.00

In a post-truth, fake news world, we are particularly susceptible to the claims of pseudoscience. When emotions and opinions are more widely disseminated than scientific findings, and self-proclaimed experts get their expertise from Google, how can the average person distinguish real science from fake? This book examines pseudoscience from a variety of perspectives, through case studies, analysis, and personal accounts that show how to recognize pseudoscience, why it is so widely accepted, and how to advocate for real science. Contributors examine the basics of pseudoscience, including issues of cognitive bias; the costs of pseudoscience, with accounts of naturopathy and logical fallacies in the anti-vaccination movement; perceptions of scientific soundness; the mainstream presence of “integrative medicine,” hypnosis, and parapsychology; and the use of case studies and new media in science advocacy. ContributorsDavid Ball, Paul Joseph Barnett, Jeffrey Beall, Mark Benisz, Fernando Blanco, Ron Dumont, Stacy Ellenberg, Kevin M. Folta, Christopher French, Ashwin Gautam, Dennis M. Gorman, David H. Gorski, David K. Hecht, Britt Marie Hermes, Clyde F. Herreid, Jonathan Howard, Seth C. Kalichman, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair, Arnold Kozak, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Emilio Lobato, Steven Lynn, Adam Marcus, Helena Matute, Ivan Oransky, Chad Orzel, Dorit Reiss, Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter, Kavin Senapathy, Dean Keith Simonton, Indre Viskontas, John O. Willis, Corrine Zimmerman

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Reconstructing the Past: Parsimony, Evolution, and Inference

$55.66 $49.50

Reconstructing the Past seeks to clarify and help resolve the vexing methodological issues that arise when biologists try to answer such questions as whether human beings are more closely related to chimps than they are to gorillas. It explores the case for considering the philosophical idea of simplicity/parsimony as a useful principle for evaluating taxonomic theories of evolutionary relationships.For the past two decades, evolutionists have been vigorously debating the appropriate methods that should be used in systematics, the field that aims at reconstructing phylogenetic relationships among species. This debate over phylogenetic inference, Elliott Sober observes, raises broader questions of hypothesis testing and theory evaluation that run head on into long standing issues concerning simplicity/parsimony in the philosophy of science.Sober treats the problem of phylogenetic inference as a detailed case study in which the philosophical idea of simplicity/parsimony can be tested as a principle of theory evaluation. Bringing together philosophy and biology, as well as statistics, Sober builds a general framework for understanding the circumstances in which parsimony makes sense as a tool of phylogenetic inference. Along the way he provides a detailed critique of parsimony in the biological literature, exploring the strengths and limitations of both statistical and nonstatistical cladistic arguments.